First dug in the 3rd Century and worked until the time of the Revolution, these chalk pits (carrières) offer ideal conditions for the aging of Champagne: constant temperature, a complete absence of vibrations and a perfect level of humidity.
The chalk pits of the hill of St Nicaise are among the Champagne Hillsides, Houses and Cellars included on the UNESCO World Heritage List
Study conducted by Philippe Tourtebatte 
 Philippe Tourtebatte: 18 rue William-Russel. 51 170 Courville, Marne; presented to the 119th Congrès National des Sociologues d’Histoire Scientifique in Amiens 1994. Quarries and structures III, p. 119 à 133.